hg man entry overruns 80 chars/line

Sanjoy Mahajan sanjoy at mrao.cam.ac.uk
Sat Aug 20 02:28:09 CDT 2005

With 'man hg' in Emacs (M-x man<CR>hg<CR>) or in a shell, many lines
overrun 80 chars, as you can see from generating hg.1 and then checking
for lines of 80+ chars in the formatted output (ignoring the lines with
the boldfacing control-H's):

asciidoc -d manpage -b docbook hg.1.txt
xmlto man hg.1.xml
groff -mandoc -Tascii hg.1 | egrep '.{80,}' | grep -v '' | wc -l

Below is an hg.1.txt with the long lines and paragraphs
hand-and-Emacs-filled to avoid that problem.  The 'diff -u' is longer
than hg.1.txt, so in the spirit of how revlogs work, below is the new
file rather than the diff.


`A society of sheep must in time beget a government of wolves.'
   - Bertrand de Jouvenal

Matt Mackall <mpm at selenic.com>

hg - Mercurial source code management system

'hg' [-v -d -q -y] <command> [command options] [files]

The hg(1) command provides a command line interface to the
Mercurial system.


--debug, -d::
    enable debugging output

--quiet, -q::
    suppress output

--verbose, -v::
    enable additional output

--noninteractive, -y::
    do not prompt, assume 'yes' for any required answers


files ...::
    indicates one or more filename or relative path filenames;
    see "FILE NAME PATTERNS" for information on pattern matching

    indicates a path on the local machine

    indicates a changeset which can be specified as a changeset
    revision number, a tag, or a unique substring of the
    changeset hash value

repository path::
    either the pathname of a local repository or the URI of a
    remote repository.  There are two available URI protocols,
    http:// which is fast and the old-http:// protocol which is
    much slower but does not require a special server on the web


add [options] [files ...]::
    Schedule files to be version controlled and added to the
    The files will be added to the repository at the next commit.

    If no names are given, add all files in the current directory
    and its subdirectories.

addremove [options] [files ...]::
    Add all new files and remove all missing files from the
    New files are ignored if they match any of the patterns in
    .hgignore. As with add, these changes take effect at the next

annotate [-r <rev> -u -n -c] [files ...]::
    List changes in files, showing the revision id responsible
    for each line
    This command is useful to discover who did a change or when a
    change took place.
    -I, --include <pat>   include names matching the given patterns
    -X, --exclude <pat>   exclude names matching the given patterns
    -r, --revision <rev>  annotate the specified revision
    -u, --user            list the author
    -c, --changeset       list the changeset
    -n, --number          list the revision number (default)

cat <file> [revision]::
    Output to stdout the given revision for the specified file.

    If no revision is given then the tip is used.

clone [-U] <source> [dest]::
    Create a copy of an existing repository in a new directory.

    If no destination directory name is specified, it defaults to
    the basename of the source.

    The source is added to the new repository's .hg/hgrc file to
    be used in future pulls.

    For efficiency, hardlinks are used for cloning whenever the
    source and destination are on the same filesystem.

    -U, --noupdate   do not update the new working directory
    -e, --ssh        specify ssh command to use
    --remotecmd      specify hg command to run on the remote side

commit [options] [files...]::
    Commit changes to the given files into the repository.
    If a list of files is omitted, all changes reported by "hg
    status" from the root of the repository will be commited.
    The HGEDITOR or EDITOR environment variables are used to
    start an editor to add a commit comment.


    -A, --addremove       run addremove during commit
    -I, --include <pat>   include names matching the given patterns
    -X, --exclude <pat>   exclude names matching the given patterns
    -m, --message <text>  use <text> as commit message
    -l, --logfile <file>  show the commit message for the given file
    -d, --date <datecode> record datecode as commit date
    -u, --user <user>     record user as commiter

    aliases: ci

copy <source> <dest>::
    Mark <dest> file as a copy or rename of a <source> one
    This command takes effect for the next commit.

diff [-r revision] [-r revision] [files ...]::
    Show differences between revisions for the specified files.
    Differences between files are shown using the unified diff
    When two revision arguments are given, then changes are shown
    between those revisions. If only one revision is specified
    then that revision is compared to the working directory, and,
    when no revisions are specified, the working directory files
    are compared to its parent.

    -I, --include <pat>  include names matching the given patterns
    -X, --exclude <pat>  exclude names matching the given patterns

export [-o filespec] [revision] ...::
    Print the changeset header and diffs for one or more revisions.

    The information shown in the changeset header is: author,
    changeset hash, parent and commit comment.

    Output may be to a file, in which case the name of the file
    is given using a format string.  The formatting rules are as

    %%   literal "%" character
    %H   changeset hash (40 bytes of hexadecimal)
    %N   number of patches being generated
    %R   changeset revision number
    %b   basename of the exporting repository
    %h   short-form changeset hash (12 bytes of hexadecimal)
    %n   zero-padded sequence number, starting at 1
    %r   zero-padded changeset revision number


    -o, --output <filespec>   print output to file with formatted named

forget [options] [files]::
    Undo an 'hg add' scheduled for the next commit.

    -I, --include <pat>  include names matching the given patterns
    -X, --exclude <pat>  exclude names matching the given patterns

    Show all repository head changesets.
    Repository "heads" are changesets that don't have children
    changesets. They are where development generally takes place
    and are the usual targets for update and merge operations.

    Print a short summary of the current state of the repo.
    This summary identifies the repository state using one or two
    parent hash identifiers, followed by a "+" if there are
    uncommitted changes in the working directory, followed by a
    list of tags for this revision.

    aliases: id

import [-p <n> -b <base> -q] <patches>::
    Import a list of patches and commit them individually.

    -p, --strip <n>   directory strip option for patch. This has
                      the same meaning as the correnponding patch
    -b <path>         base directory to read patches from

    aliases: patch

incoming [source]::
    Show new changesets found in the specified repo or the
    default pull repo. These are the changesets that would be
    pulled if a pull was requested.

    Currently only local repositories are supported.

    aliases: in

init [dest]::
    Initialize a new repository in the given directory.  If the
    given directory does not exist, it is created.

    If no directory is given, the current directory is used.

locate [options] [files]::
    Print all files under Mercurial control whose names match the
    given patterns.

    This command searches the current directory and its
    subdirectories.  To search an entire repository, move to the root
    of the repository.

    If no patterns are given to match, this command prints all file

    If you want to feed the output of this command into the "xargs"
    command, use the "-0" option to both this command and "xargs".
    This will avoid the problem of "xargs" treating single filenames
    that contain white space as multiple file names.


    -0, --print0         end filenames with NUL, for use with xargs
    -f, --fullpath       print complete paths from the filesystem root
    -I, --include <pat>  include names matching the given patterns
    -r, --rev <rev>      search the repository as it stood at rev
    -X, --exclude <pat>  exclude names matching the given patterns

log [-r revision ...] [-p] [file]::
    Print the revision history of the specified file or the
    entire project.

    By default this command outputs: changeset id and hash, tags,
    parents, user, date and time, and a summary for each
    commit. The -v switch adds some more detail, such as changed
    files, manifest hashes or message signatures.

    -r, --rev <A>, ...  When a revision argument is given, only
                        this file or changelog revision is
                        displayed. With two revision arguments
                        all revisions in this range are listed.
                        Additional revision arguments may be
                        given repeating the above cycle.
    -p, --patch         show patch

    aliases: history

manifest [revision]::
    Print a list of version controlled files for the given

    The manifest is the list of files being version
    controlled. If no revision is given then the tip is used.

outgoing [dest]:: 
    Show changesets not found in the specified destination repo
    or the default push repo. These are the changesets that would
    be pushed if a push was requested.

    aliases: out

    Print the working directory's parent revisions.

paths [NAME]::
    Show definition of symbolic path name NAME. If no name is
    given, show definition of available names.

    Path names are defined in the [paths] section of
    /etc/mercurial/hgrc and $HOME/.hgrc.  If run inside a
    repository, .hg/hgrc is used, too.

pull <repository path>::
    Pull changes from a remote repository to a local one.

    This finds all changes from the repository at the specified
    path or URL and adds them to the local repository. By
    default, this does not update the copy of the project in the
    working directory.

    Valid URLs are of the form:


    SSH requires an accessible shell account on the destination
    machine and a copy of hg in the remote path.
    -u, --update  update the working directory to tip after pull
    -e, --ssh     specify ssh command to use
    --remotecmd   specify hg command to run on the remote side

push <destination>::
    Push changes from the local repository to the given
    This is the symmetrical operation for pull. It helps to move
    changes from the current repository to a different one. If
    the destination is local this is identical to a pull in that
    directory from the current one.

    By default, push will refuse to run if it detects the result
    would increase the number of remote heads. This generally
    indicates the the client has forgotten to sync and merge
    before pushing.

    Valid URLs are of the form:

    SSH requires an accessible shell account on the destination
    machine and a copy of hg in the remote path.


    -f, --force  force update
    -e, --ssh    specify ssh command to use
    --remotecmd  specify hg command to run on the remote side

rawcommit [-p -d -u -F -m -l]::
    Lowlevel commit, for use in helper scripts.
    This command is not intended to be used by normal users, as
    it is primarily useful for importing from other SCMs.

    Recover from an interrupted commit or pull.
    This command tries to fix the repository status after an
    interrupted operation. It should only be necessary when
    Mercurial suggests it.

remove [files ...]::
    Schedule the indicated files for removal from the repository.
    This command shedules the files to be removed at the next
    commit.  This only removes files from the current branch, not
    from the entire project history.

    aliases: rm

revert [names ...]::
    Revert any uncommitted modifications made to the named files
    or directories.  This restores the contents of the affected
    files to an unmodified state.

    If a file has been deleted, it is recreated.  If the
    executable mode of a file was changed, it is reset.

    If a directory is given, all files in that directory and its
    subdirectories are reverted.

    If no arguments are given, all files in the current directory
    and its subdirectories are reverted.

    -r, --rev <rev>       revision to revert to
    -n, --nonrecursive    do not recurse into subdirectories

    Print the root directory of the current repository.

serve [options]::
    Start a local HTTP repository browser and pull server.

    By default, the server logs accesses to stdout and errors to
    stderr.  Use the "-A" and "-E" options to log to files.

    -A, --accesslog <file>   name of access log file to write to
    -E, --errorlog <file>    name of error log file to write to
    -a, --address <addr>     address to use
    -p, --port <n>           port to use (default: 8000)
    -n, --name <name>        name to show in web pages (default: working dir)
    -t, --templatedir <path> web templates to use
    -6, --ipv6               use IPv6 in addition to IPv4

status [options] [files]::
    Show changed files in the working directory.  If no names are
    given, all files are shown.  Otherwise, only files matching
    the given names are shown.

    The codes used to show the status of files are:
    M = changed
    A = added
    R = removed
    ? = not tracked


    -m, --modified       show only modified files
    -a, --added          show only added files
    -r, --removed        show only removed files
    -u, --unknown        show only unknown (not tracked) files
    -I, --include <pat>  include names matching the given patterns
    -X, --exclude <pat>  exclude names matching the given patterns

tag [-l -m <text> -d <datecode> -u <user>] <name> [revision]::
    Name a particular revision using <name>.
    Tags are used to name particular revisions of the repository
    and are very useful to compare different revision, to go back
    to significant earlier versions or to mark branch points as
    releases, etc.
    If no revision is given, the tip is used.

    To facilitate version control, distribution, and merging of
    tags, they are stored as a file named ".hgtags" which is
    managed similarly to other project files and can be
    hand-edited if necessary.

    -l, --local           make the tag local
    -m, --message <text>  message for tag commit log entry
    -d, --date <datecode> datecode for commit
    -u, --user <user>     user for commit

    Note: Local tags are not version-controlled or distributed
    and are stored in the .hg/localtags file. If there exists a
    local tag and a public tag with the same name, local tag is

    List the repository tags.

    This lists both regular and local tags.

    Show the tip revision.

    Undo the last commit or pull transaction.

    Roll back the last pull or commit transaction on the
    repository, restoring the project to its earlier state.

    This command should be used with care. There is only one
    level of undo and there is no redo.

    This command is not intended for use on public
    repositories. Once a change is visible for pull by other
    users, undoing it locally is ineffective.

update [-m -C] [revision]::
    Update the working directory to the specified revision.

    By default, update will refuse to run if doing so would
    require merging or discarding local changes.

    With the -m option, a merge will be performed.

    With the -C option, local changes will be lost.
    -m, --merge       allow merging of branches
    -C, --clean       overwrite locally modified files

    aliases: up checkout co

    Verify the integrity of the current repository.

    This will perform an extensive check of the repository's
    integrity, validating the hashes and checksums of each entry
    in the changelog, manifest, and tracked files, as well as the
    integrity of their crosslinks and indices.


    Mercurial accepts several notations for identifying one or
    more file at a time.

    By default, Mercurial treats file names as shell-style
    extended glob patterns.

    Alternate pattern notations must be specified explicitly.

    To use a plain path name without any pattern matching, start
    a name with "path:".  These path names must match completely,
    from the root of the current repository.

    To use an extended glob, start a name with "glob:".  Globs
    are rooted at the current directory; a glob such as "*.c"
    will match files ending in ".c" in the current directory

    The supported glob syntax extensions are "**" to match any
    string across path separators, and "{a,b}" to mean "a or b".

    To use a Perl/Python regular expression, start a name with
    "re:".  Regexp pattern matching is anchored at the root of
    the repository.

    Plain examples:

    path:foo/bar   a name bar in a directory named foo in the root of
                   the repository
    path:path:name a file or directory named "path:name"

    Glob examples:

    glob:*.c       any name ending in ".c" in the current directory
    *.c            any name ending in ".c" in the current directory
    **.c           any name ending in ".c" in the current directory,
                   or any subdirectory
    foo/*.c        any name ending in ".c" in the directory foo
    foo/**.c       any name ending in ".c" in the directory foo, 
                   or any subdirectory

    Regexp examples:

    re:.*\.c$      any name ending in ".c", anywhere in the repsitory


    Mercurial accepts several notations for identifying
    individual revisions.

    A plain integer is treated as a revision number.  Negative
    integers are treated as offsets from the tip, with -1
    denoting the tip.

    A 40-digit hexadecimal string is treated as a unique revision

    A hexadecimal string less than 40 characters long is treated
    as a unique revision identifier, and referred to as a
    short-form identifier.  A short-form identifier is only valid
    if it is the prefix of one full-length identifier.

    Any other string is treated as a tag name, which is a
    symbolic name associated with a revision identifier.  Tag
    names may not contain the ":" character.

    The reserved name "tip" is a special tag that always
    identifies the most recent revision.


    When Mercurial accepts more than one revision, they may be
    specified individually, or provided as a continuous range,
    separated by the ":" character.

    The syntax of range notation is [BEGIN]:[END], where BEGIN
    and END are revision identifiers.  Both BEGIN and END are
    optional.  If BEGIN is not specified, it defaults to revision
    number 0.  If END is not specified, it defaults to the tip.
    The range ":" thus means "all revisions".

    If BEGIN is greater than END, revisions are treated in
    reverse order.

    A range acts as a closed interval.  This means that a range
    of 3:5 gives 3, 4 and 5.  Similarly, a range of 4:2 gives 4,
    3, and 2.


    This is the name of the editor to use when
    committing. Defaults to the value of EDITOR.

    (deprecated, use .hgrc)

    An executable to use for resolving merge conflicts. The
    program will be executed with three arguments: local file,
    remote file, ancestor file.

    The default program is "hgmerge", which is a shell script
    provided by Mercurial with some sensible defaults.

    (deprecated, use .hgrc)

    This is the string used for the author of a commit.

    (deprecated, use .hgrc)

    If HGUSER is not set, this will be used as the author for a

    If neither HGUSER nor EMAIL is set, LOGNAME will be used
    (with '@hostname' appended) as the author value for a commit.

    This is the name of the editor used in the hgmerge script. It
    will be used for commit messages if HGEDITOR isn't
    set. Defaults to 'vi'.

    This is used by Python to find imported modules and may need
    to be set appropriately if Mercurial is not installed

    This file contains regular expressions (one per line) that
    describe file names that should be ignored by hg.

    This file contains changeset hash values and text tag names
    (one of each seperated by spaces) that correspond to tagged
    versions of the repository contents.

 /etc/mercurial/hgrc, $HOME/.hgrc, .hg/hgrc::
    This file contains defaults and configuration. Values in
    .hg/hgrc override those in $HOME/.hgrc, and these override
    settings made in the global /etc/mercurial/hgrc
    configuration.  See hgrc(5) for details of the contents and
    format of these files.

Probably lots, please post them to the mailing list (See
Resources below) when you find them.


Written by Matt Mackall <mpm at selenic.com>

http://selenic.com/mercurial[Main Web Site]

http://www.serpentine.com/mercurial[Wiki site]

http://selenic.com/hg[Source code repository]

http://selenic.com/mailman/listinfo/mercurial[Mailing list]

Copyright (C) 2005 Matt Mackall.
Free use of this software is granted under the terms of the GNU
General Public License (GPL).

More information about the Mercurial mailing list